Open Access Journals

Title : Comparative study of some growth attributies of two varieties of Citrullus Lanatus Thunb. (Water Melon) cultivated in Umudike Abia State Nigeria
Authors : Kelechukwu Chris Egbucha,Duke Nduka Aghale,N. Umeoka,Richards Ibiam

Four growth attributes from two varieties of the vegetable crop Citrullus lanatus Thunb. (Water melon) cultivated in Umudike, Abia State of Nigeria were studied as the crops were growing on the field. Seeds of the two varieties viz. Wantoma60 and Raider52 were obtained from an Agricultural Research Institute within the town and planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design within the Botanical Garden of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Data on number of leaves, number of branches, vine length and number of internodes were collected from the growing plants of the two varieties. Student t-test statistical analysis tool was employed in analyzing and comparing the mean values of data. In all four parameters measured significant differences were recorded between the varieties at P < 0.05. Variety Wantoma60 performed higher than variety Raider52 in all parameters measured. The implication of the result is that variety Wantoma60 mmay be better adapted to grow vegetatively than variety Raider 52 in the climatic and edaphic conditions of Umudike south-east Nigeria.

Keywords : Vine length , internode , carotenoid , chlorophyll , edaphic , t-value
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Title : Nutritional and Phytochemical content of indigenous leafy vegetables consumed in Botswana
Authors : Sarah Tshepho Pona Matenge,Jiazhou Li,Samuel Apau,Roy Tapera

Plant materials especially green leafy vegetables contain nutrients and phytochemicals whose consumption has been associated with protecting the human body from chronic diseases. With the aim to promote the utilisation of indigenous leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Botswana, nutrient and phytochemical composition of three leafy vegetables: Amaranth (Amarunthus spp.), Spider plant (Cleome gynandra), and Cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata) were evaluated. The moisture content of the vegetables was high ranging from (84.1 ± 0.05 (Amarunthus spp.) to 88.8 ± 0.10% wet basis (Cleome gynandra). The ash content ranged between 1.90 ± 0.06 % (Amarunthus spp.) and 3.0 ± 0.04 % (Cleome gynandra). All the leafy indigenous vegetables were found to be poor sources of protein, fat and fibre. The total phenolics ranged from 10.4 ± 0.5 to 40.4 ± 0.11 mg/g DW. Amarunthus spp. had the highest phenolic content (40.4 ± 0.11mg/g DW). 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found to be present in Amaranthus spp., 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, 4-hydroxbenzoic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids where found in Vigna unguiculata whilst vanillic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found in Cleome gynandra. Ferulic acid appeared in all the samples analysed, however, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results from the study emphasize the role of these vegetables as a source of nutrients and polyphenols which could contribute to their health promoting properties and offer enormous opportunities for the functional food industry.

Keywords : Indigenous leafy vegetables , Phenolic compounds , HPLC , Proximate analysis , Vigna unguiculata , Cleome gynandra , Amarunthus spp.
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Title : Sensory Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy -yogurt with Different Grouping of Treatments
Authors : Amjad Raeisi,Vahid Farshbaf Derhami,Ali Hosseini ,Sajjad Dehghani

2% sucrose with orange flavor essence

Keywords : Flavor essences , Sensory evaluation , Soy-yogurt , Sweetener
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Manuscript Code : and 2% sucrose with banana flavor essence.

Title : Body Mass Index of Endurance Athletes of the Bulacan State University: Basis for a Sports and Nutrition Program
Authors : Anna Dominique M. Tallara

The purpose of this study is to determine the body mass index and problems encountered of selected endurance athletes of Bulacan State University during training and event proper that will be a basis of sports and nutrition program. The major instrument that was utilized in this is study consisted of survey questionnaire tool. The instrument has 3 parts. Part 1 is the demographic profile of the athletes of Bulacan State University which includes age, gender, living arrangement, and sports. Part 2 represents the level of nutritional status of the athletes in terms of BMI. Part 3 is the problems encountered by the respondents during training and competition. The research concluded that most respondents have normal body mass index. The athletes’ most encountered problem during the regular training is weight management while eating disorder and lack of motivation are their least concern. Lack of sleep is the major concern or of the athletes during the rigid training while eating disorder, lack of motivation, weight management and lack of supporters are their least concern. Majority of the respondents concern is injury during competition. While time of meals and fluid intake during competition is their least concern.

Keywords : Athlete , body mass index , endurance
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Title : Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for Evaluation of Functional Properties of Extruded Product Developed from Beetroot Leaves Powder (BRLP) along with Cereals and Pulse Powder
Authors : Subhash B. Kakade,Bahadur Singh Hathan,Neeha VS

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) green is more nutritious as compared to the beetroot but many part of India it is not used as food it is only used as animal fodder so that we can utilize beetroot green waste which is nutritionally rich in fiber, protein, and carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals for the products development to overcome the malnutrition problem of developing countries. In this study Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of moisture content, chickpea powder and beetroot leaves powder on the functional properties of extradites developed from beetroot leaves powder (BRLP) along with cereals and pulse powder. Moisture content, chickpea powder and beetroot leaves powder had significant effect on lateral expansion, water absorption capacity (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and sensory evaluation. Result showed that with increase in moisture content and chickpea powder lateral expansion of extrudates increase up to optimum level and finally decrease. Increase in moisture content, chickpea powder and beetroot leaves powder resulted in decrease in lateral expansion of the extradites. Results revealed that optimized extruded products are rich in crude fiber content and total phenolic content (TPC).

Keywords : Beetroot Leaves Powder (BRLP) , Chickpea Powder , Extrusion , Moisture Content , Response Surface Methodology (RSM) , Total Phenolic Content (TPC)
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Title : Sensory acceptability of squash (cucurbita maxima) in baking
Authors : Ramona Borro,Raymund Gemora

This research study aimed to ascertain the sensory acceptability of squash (Cucurbita Maxima) of varied quantities in baking cake as to appearance, taste, color, texture and general acceptability. A panel of 20 evaluators, purposely picked, from the School of Hotel and Restaurant Services Technology of the West Visayas State University – Janiuay Campus, were utilized as respondents. Formulated in the study were four treatments– three of which used squash at various quantities while as the control variable, one treatment, which contained no squash at all, was used. A modified sensory evaluation score sheet anchored on Five-Point Hedonic Scale was used by the respondents to assess the finished products. Means, ANOVA and Scheffe Test were utilized as the statistical tools. As a whole, results disclosed that baked cakes with no grated squash and 120 grams grated squash were moderately liked by the respondents while those baked cakes with 240 grams grated squash and 380 grams grated squash were liked very much by the respondents. There were significant differences in the level of acceptability of the different treatments as to appearance, taste, color, texture as well as general acceptability.

Keywords : Sensory , Acceptability , Squash , Cake
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Title : Active Content Variation in Citrus Limon: Age, Temperature, pH and Air
Authors : Apoorva Sehgal,Bharat Jhanwar,Umesh K. Gilhotra

Vitamin C is an antioxidant and free radical scavenger for human body. Consumption of Vita C as a nutrient in diet is recommended. Thermal process, environmental factors and pH can cause a negative impact on vitamin content in multivitamin formulation and juices due to physical and chemical instability. Vita C content varies with the age of lemon fruit from unripe to stale. The present paper aims towards content variability and stability studies under various storage conditions like temperature air and pH. Classical methodology like Iodatometric titration is an easy way to trace out the vitamin content in any source using potassium iodate with starch as external indicator. Fresh ripened lemon juice contained 36.5 mg/100ml Vita C, whereas unripened contains 74.6 mg/100ml. Thermal shock of higher degree can decrease the content but for preservation lower temperature was found less deteriorative and deleterious. Percent loss of vitamin were found higher, 56.52 at 80°C and 39.12, 34.8 and 26.3 at 60°C, 40°C and room temperature respectively. Lower temperature shows good retention of vitamin content in the juice so as the percent loss were found 21.9, 13.01 and 8.68 at 12°C , 0°C and -12°C respectively. Air treatments and pH attacks were found harmful for Vita C storage. Storage of it in open bottle in environment the amount was decrease up to with time of min. manipulation of ph using acids and bases also found to decrease the content.

Keywords : Vitamin C Iodatometric , Age , Thermal Shocks , Storage , Environmental and Deteriorative
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Title : Increasing Trends in Dairy Sector in India
Authors : Hanish Sharma,Vipan Kumar,Heigo Pal,V.M. Wadhawan

Livestock production is the vital sector which action a major source of income to the impoverished rural households throughout the world. Livestock equip people with food, income, draught power and fertilizer and act as the major livelihood means of millions of our country, where crop farming faces challenges India is one among the fastest growing economics of the world and mainly depends on the agrarian sector as a tool for progress. Dairy sector is emerging as the highest contributor to the agricultural wealth of India, surpassing even cereals. India is the highest milk producing country in the world contributing 16% of the world production. The annual milk production in India has reached 119.44 million tonnes in 2011 against the 23 million tonnes in 1971 and the share of this sector is also increasing year by year.

Keywords : Dairy sector , livestock , growth.
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Title : Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Some Nigerian Roasted Plant Foods
Authors : V.O.E. Akpambang,G. Purcaro,L. Lajide,I. A. Amoo,L. S. Conte,S. Moret

Thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and quantified in three different roasted plant foods (Zea mays, Dioscorea rotundata and Musa paradisiaca) using a rapid method involving microwave assisted saponification and simultaneous extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and spectrofluorometric detection. The method applied had good recovery and repeatability characteristcs. With respect to raw samples, roasted samples had higher contamination levels with a maximum benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content of 0.6 µg kg-1 dry weight. Roasted Zea mays had the highest low molecular weight- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (LMW-PAH) load of 31.2 µg kg-1 dry weight, which may be due to the fact that the charred portions after roasting are not usually subjected to scrapping, an exercise which is usually carried out on other roasted plant foods. Anyways, PAHs exposure due to the consumption of roasted plant foods may not pose serious concerns for human health, especially as they are low in heavy molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs).

Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) , microwave assisted extraction (MAE) , HPLC , roasted plant foods , risk assessment.
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Title : Development and evaluation of cinnamon flavored buttermilk
Authors : Sailaja Palthur,C.M. Anuradha,N. Devanna

Cinnamon flavored Butter Milk was developed by addition of Cinnamon powder in Butter milk and investigating the proximate quality, textural characteristics, keeping quality and sensory attributes of the developed product. In our study carried out the variation in moisture, protein, fat and ash content, PH , Acidity and Specific Gravity. When compared to normal butter milk (without cinnamon) significant changes were observed in Cinnamon flavored Butter Milk. The organoleptic studies appearance, color, flavor, taste, mouth feel and overall acceptability were studied and overall acceptability was good for Cinnamon Flavored Butter milk. Furthermore we studied microbial studies such as total plate count (TPC), yeast and mould count, coliform and E.coli to evaluate the safety and keeping quality of the products. Antioxidant and iron chelating activity of the Cinnamon Flavored Butter milk was also determined. The Shelf life of Cinnamon Flavored Butter Milk was better compared to normal buttermilk and recommended for market exploration.

Keywords : Cinnamon Flavored Butter Milk , Organoleptic studies , Antioxidant Properties , Cinnamon
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